What are the most common fitness goals?
Fitness goals can be summarized into four main aspects: enhancing physical fitness, preventing and treating diseases, improving social interactions, and shaping body appearance. Based on different objectives, individuals pursuing fitness have varied preferences in selecting exercise programs.
Enhancing Physical Fitness
Enhancing physical fitness is a common benefit of most exercise programs, although different programs may have varying effects. To achieve the goal of enhancing physical fitness, the general principle is to diversify the selection of exercise programs to complement the fitness benefits of different activities. It is advisable to choose exercises that target strength, endurance, flexibility, speed, agility, and balance. Different age groups can choose different programs. Adolescents are encouraged to engage in strength training, endurance exercises, and speed/agility training, while adults can focus on strength, endurance, and flexibility exercises. Older adults should prioritize strength, endurance, balance, and flexibility exercises. Gender can also influence the choice of exercise programs. Males may lean towards strength training, endurance exercises, speed/agility training, while females may focus on endurance and flexibility exercises (see Chapter 5 for more details).
Preventing and Treating Diseases
The goal of preventing and treating diseases can be divided into two aspects. To prevent diseases, exercise programs that enhance physical fitness can be adopted. However, when aiming to treat specific diseases, the selection of exercise programs should be based on the individual's condition. For aerobic exercise, it is recommended to choose activities that improve strength, endurance, and flexibility. Specific exercise plans for individuals with chronic diseases can be found in Chapter 6.
Improving Social Interactions
To enhance social interactions, exercise programs can be chosen based on personal mastery of specific sports skills, favoring multi-person or group activities.
Shaping Body Appearance
The goal of shaping body appearance can be divided into two aspects: muscle gain and weight loss. To achieve muscle gain, strength training programs should be selected. For weight loss, a variety of aerobic exercises can be chosen.
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