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Methods for Endurance Training

Methods for Endurance TrainingQuestion: What are the methods for endurance training?(1) Continuous Training MethodContinuous training is a method involving low-intensity, long-dura...

Methods for Endurance Training

Question: What are the methods for endurance training?

(1) Continuous Training Method

Continuous training is a method involving low-intensity, long-duration, uninterrupted, continuous exercise. College students who utilize this method for general endurance training can effectively enhance aerobic metabolism's energy supply capacity and aerobic exercise intensity under this supply state. It can also establish a solid foundation for students' anaerobic metabolism capacity and anaerobic work intensity.

Continuous training is characterized by its ability to employ both single and multiple technical actions, moderate intensity, relatively long load durations, and a predominant reliance on the aerobic metabolic system. Typically, the continuous load duration for a set of exercises should be at least 10 minutes, with heart rate controlled at around 160 beats per minute during training without interruptions. This training method effectively improves students' specific endurance in aerobic metabolic system supply states, enhances the stability of technical application, and endurance against fatigue.

Continuous training can develop general endurance, improve oxygen uptake, oxygen delivery abilities, and even develop specific strength endurance. The intensity and load vary depending on the training objectives.

(2) interval training Method

Interval training involves strict regulation of rest periods between multiple training sessions, keeping the body in a state of incomplete recovery, repeatedly engaging in training. In college student endurance training, the judicious application of interval training significantly enhances cardiovascular function, induces adaptive changes in various bodily functions, and effectively improves and develops glycolytic metabolism energy supply capacity, phosphate and glycolysis mixed metabolism energy supply capacity, glycolysis and aerobic metabolism mixed energy supply capacity, and aerobic metabolism energy supply capacity. This method also improves the body's ability to resist lactic acid and enables students to sustain exercise at higher intensities.

Interval training can significantly enhance speed endurance and endurance levels in short-distance and middle-distance running events. Active rest methods, such as jogging or walking, are used during intervals. The next exercise session begins when the heart rate has recovered to 120-130 beats per minute.

College students using interval training work through another exercise session without complete recovery between sets. This training method affects the body in several ways:

It increases students' cardiac output per minute, improving myocardial contractility and cardiac output levels.

It enhances students' respiratory system function, especially their maximum oxygen uptake levels.

It effectively enhances students' glycogen aerobic degradation capacity and aerobic endurance levels during long-distance running with longer load times and relatively lower load intensities.

It improves students' aerobic and anaerobic mixed energy supply capacity and anaerobic endurance levels during short to medium-distance running with shorter load times and relatively higher load intensities.

Different types of interval training methods can be constructed based on training time, distance, intensity, rest intervals, and training objectives.

(3) Repetition Training Method

Repetition training involves multiple repetitions of the same exercise with relatively ample rest between each pair of exercises (sets). In college student endurance training, repetition training helps consolidate the process of exercise-conditioned reflexes through multiple repetitions, facilitating the mastery and reinforcement of technical movements. It allows the body to develop adaptive mechanisms quickly, benefiting overall physical fitness. The primary factors in repetition training include the load per set, load intensity, and rest time between each pair of exercises. Rest can be achieved through inactivity, muscle massage, or walking.

For longer-distance events in short-distance running (200 meters, 400 meters), which require high-speed endurance, college students can effectively develop their lactate energy supply system and improve their ability to handle oxygen debt through repeated runs of longer distances (300-500 meters).

Middle-distance events in shorter-distance running (800 meters) primarily involve anaerobic metabolism, leading to significant oxygen debt and lactic acid accumulation. College students can improve their ability to tolerate oxygen debt and substantial lactic acid accumulation while enhancing anaerobic endurance and speed endurance through repeated runs of 500-1500 meters.

Long-distance running events impose significant exercise loads, requiring maximum oxygen intake and full mobilization of the circulatory and respiratory systems. The extended exercise duration gradually elevates their working levels. College students can effectively develop the functionality of their circulatory and respiratory systems, aiming to enhance specific endurance levels.

Repetition training is characterized by starting the next training session when the heart rate has recovered to 100-120 beats per minute. It emphasizes specific characteristics related to training time, distance, weight, and movements, with high intensity but fewer repetitions.

(4) Circuit Training Method

Circuit training revolves around specific training tasks, setting up multiple training stations where trainees complete each station's tasks in a predetermined order and route. College students can use circuit training in endurance training to boost training motivation, accumulate "traces" of load, and provide alternating stimuli to different body positions. The structure factors of circuit training include each station's training content, exercise load at each station, arrangement order of training stations, intervals between training stations, intervals between each cycle, and the number of practice stations and cycle exercises. College students using circuit training can foster enthusiasm, adjust training density during exercise, and make timely adjustments based on individual situations. The use of circuit training also prevents excessive local stress and delays the onset of fatigue, significantly improving endurance levels.

Circuit training stands out for its organic connection between training stations, moderate average load intensity at each station, no significant breaks between stations during each cycle, long continuous load durations, alternating high and low load intensities, and a relatively high number of cycles. Upper and lower limb exercises and anterior and posterior exercises can be arranged in sequences or alternated. The commonly used organization modes are continuous and rotational.

College students can increase their ability to exercise continuously under fatigue and enhance aerobic exercise intensity through circuit training, all while improving their power endurance in the aerobic metabolic state.

(5) Varied Training Method

Varied training promotes trainees' motivation, interest, adaptability, and ability to adapt by changing exercise loads, training content, training forms, and conditions. When exercise loads are varied, the body undergoes adaptive changes that help it cope with various exercise demands. Changing training content ensures that different athletic qualities, techniques, and tactics receive systematic training and coordination.

Varied training can be divided into three main categories based on what is changed:

Load Variation Training Method: This method can help the body adapt to varying exercise intensities, energy metabolism system development, and improvements in exercise quality, duration, interval time, rest mode, and the number of exercise sets.

Content Variation Training Method: Content variation involves fixed and variable combinations of training content to align the training load's nature with specific characteristics and meet physical development needs. This includes changing the force level of exercise movements to match specific requirements.

Form Variation Training Method: Form variation utilizes changes in environmental factors such as training environments, atmospheres, paths, training times, and training forms to provide fresh stimuli. This helps maintain high training motivation, prepares the nervous system, and significantly improves endurance training quality.

(6) Altitude Training Method

Altitude training involves training at higher altitudes with lower oxygen levels, which is often used by professional sports teams. Training facilities in high-altitude areas like Qinghai's Duoba and Kunming in Yunnan, China, serve as high-altitude training bases. Altitude training is an excellent method to improve endurance levels. Conducted at altitudes of approximately 2000 meters, this training can significantly develop aerobic metabolism capacity and enhance the body's ability to withstand high-intensity training and intense competition after returning to low-altitude areas.

During altitude training, college students are exposed to reduced oxygen levels in the air, which places higher demands on their cardiovascular and respiratory systems. With time and adaptation, students' lung ventilation and respiratory efficiency will markedly improve, enhancing the functionality of their respiratory and circulatory systems.

Altitude training increases the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin in students' blood, greatly improving the body's oxygen-carrying capacity. It also promotes the growth and dilation of capillaries in muscles, significantly enhancing the aerobic energy supply capacity of muscle cells.

By undertaking altitude training, college students can develop their aerobic energy supply ability, increasing their endurance in conditions of reduced oxygen availability.

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