How can I improve my fitness training program?
Revision of Fitness Training Plans
A fitness training plan is a specific exercise program designed for an individual with a designated duration. It includes six components: fitness goals, exercise selection, exercise intensity, exercise duration, exercise frequency, and precautions. A good plan should fulfill the following aspects: appropriate and personalized fitness goals, comprehensive and feasible exercise selection, reasonable exercise intensity, and appropriate exercise volume. After a period of time (usually around 4 weeks), significant health promotion effects should be observed from the fitness training. If not, it indicates issues with the fitness training plan that need to be promptly revised. Additionally, after implementing a fitness training plan for some time, changes in physical functions and exercise capacity will occur. Adjustments to the fitness training plan are necessary to achieve better results with the altered baseline conditions.
Revision of Fitness Goals
The overall objective of promoting health determines the main aspects of individual fitness goals, including physical fitness improvement, disease prevention and treatment, social interaction, and body shaping. Each aspect needs to be subdivided and specific goals should be determined based on individual circumstances. The more specific the goals, the more precise the plan can be.
Revision of fitness goals usually occurs after a certain period of plan implementation. If possible, seek advice from relevant professionals to modify the goals. If not, revisions can be made based on self-assessment of the exercise effects. Common issues requiring revision in fitness training plans include setting goals that are too high, such as planning to lose 10 kilograms in a month; setting vague goals, such as planning to significantly increase strength in a month; or setting goals that are inconsistent with expectations, such as planning to reach a level of 20 push-ups per session to enhance cardiovascular endurance.
Revision of Exercise Selection
Fitness training is manifested through specific exercise activities. Since different exercise activities have varying fitness values, the fitness effects produced can differ significantly. Exercise selection is determined based on fitness goals. However, due to insufficient understanding of the characteristics and fitness values of exercises, there may be deviations in exercise selection. Adjustments to exercise selection should be made based on the evaluation of effects. For example, although both Tai Chi and aerobic dance are aerobic exercises that improve cardiovascular endurance, the relatively lower intensity of Tai Chi results in a weaker effect on cardiovascular fitness compared to aerobic dance. Another factor to consider when revising the training plan is whether the exercise activities are suitable for the individual's subjective and objective conditions. For example, some exercises that require ample preparation or longer exercise durations may not be suitable for individuals with limited time.
Revision of Exercise Intensity
Exercise intensity is a key aspect of exercise stimulation and is closely related to fitness training effects. Proper intensity arrangements generally yield better results, while low intensity leads to weaker effects, and high intensity can cause excessive fatigue or even exercise-related injuries. The appropriateness of exercise intensity is determined based on physiological intensity monitoring and subjective perception of intensity during exercise, which serves as the main basis for revision. For regular fitness enthusiasts, moderate intensity is generally suitable. Younger individuals can choose moderately higher intensity, while older individuals should opt for moderately lower intensity. Patients with chronic diseases need to determine exercise intensity based on the characteristics and progression of their conditions.
Revision of Exercise Volume
Under the same intensity, exercise volume depends on factors such as exercise duration and frequency. Exercise duration refers to the total time spent exercising per day or per session (which can accumulate throughout the day), while exercise frequency refers to the number of days per week engaged in exercise. Revision of exercise volume mainly considers two factors: first, exercise requires a certain amount of accumulation to yield effects, so insufficient exercise duration or low frequency makes it difficult to achieve the desired fitness outcomes; second, exercise-induced fatigue requires a certain amount of time to recover. Excessive exercise volume can lead to accumulated fatigue, which is not conducive to health and may even cause exercise-related injuries. The revision of exercise volume is primarily based on feeling a certain level of fatigue after exercising, which does not significantly affect sleep, and feeling recovered and energized on the following day as the main criteria.
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