types of fitness training programs
Types of Fitness Training Activities
There are many types of fitness training activities, and it is important to have some understanding of them in order to choose the appropriate ones. Firstly, different fitness training activities have significant differences in their fitness value. For example, running and swimming, even though they fall under the same fitness category, yield different fitness outcomes due to differences in intensity. Secondly, the population participating in fitness activities varies not only in age and gender but also in other individual factors, including physical health, exercise background and capacity, personality traits, and economic constraints. While some fitness activities are suitable for everyone, such as walking, others may only be suitable for certain individuals, such as tennis or golf. Therefore, the first challenge encountered in fitness training is the selection of appropriate activities. Choosing activities that are suitable and sustainable for oneself is a crucial aspect of scientifically approaching fitness training. In the previous section on the pyramid structure of fitness training activities, everyday physical activities primarily referred to physical activities incorporated into daily routines, such as walking, household chores, work-related tasks, and commuting. This section focuses on activities from the second level of the pyramid and above, which are purposeful and planned fitness training activities performed during leisure time. There are various classification methods for fitness training activities, and the following four are important for general fitness enthusiasts to understand.
Energy Supply and Categorization of Exercise
Physical movement is the result of skeletal muscle activity, which requires energy expenditure. The energy supply during physical activity can be categorized into two scenarios: aerobic oxidation of carbohydrates and fats under sufficient oxygen supply and anaerobic glycolysis of glycogen in the absence of oxygen (in addition, there is a scenario where high-energy phosphates ATP and CP stored in the body provide energy under anaerobic conditions, but this energy supply can only be sustained for about 10 seconds, which is very short). Therefore, all fitness training activities can be classified into aerobic and anaerobic exercises based on their energy supply during exercise.
A. Aerobic Exercise
The term "aerobic exercise" was coined by Dr. Kenneth Cooper, a medical fitness expert, in the late 1960s. It originally referred to "oxygen-utilizing exercise." Aerobic exercise involves sustained physical activity performed by the body's major muscle groups under aerobic metabolism.
Characteristics of aerobic exercise:
Aerobic metabolism: The oxygen requirement during exercise is relatively low, below the maximum oxygen uptake capacity of the body. Adequate oxygen supply is available during exercise, and the energy supply for physical activity comes from the aerobic oxidation of internal energy substrates.
Involvement of major muscle groups: The primary muscles of the upper and lower extremities and the trunk are simultaneously engaged in the activity.
Prolonged duration: Due to the reliance on aerobic metabolism for energy supply, aerobic exercises are less fatiguing and can be performed for extended periods.
Typical examples of aerobic exercises include walking, jogging, dance-based fitness classes, aerobic workouts, cycling, stair climbing, swimming, rowing, and more.
B. Anaerobic Exercise
Anaerobic exercise refers to physical activity performed under anaerobic metabolism, contrasting with aerobic exercise. Characteristics of anaerobic exercise include:
Anaerobic metabolism: The oxygen requirement during exercise exceeds the body's maximum oxygen uptake capacity, resulting in oxygen deficiency. The energy supply for physical activity comes from the anaerobic glycolysis of glycogen.
Lactic acid production: Anaerobic glycolysis produces lactic acid, which can disrupt the body's internal environment when it reaches a certain level.
Short duration: Disruption of the internal environment caused by lactic acid production leads to fatigue, limiting the duration of anaerobic exercise.
Typical examples of anaerobic exercises include sprinting, fast-paced skipping, and rapid stair climbing.
In fact, some fitness activities, such as many ball sports, exhibit characteristics of both aerobic and anaerobic exercises and are generally classified as anaerobic exercises.
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