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Training Methods for Jumping Sports

Training Methods for Jumping Sports(I) Crossbar High JumpThe crossbar high jump, a form often used by beginners, is one of the approaches in high jumping techniques. It's the e...

Training Methods for Jumping Sports

(I) Crossbar High Jump

The crossbar high jump, a form often used by beginners, is one of the approaches in high jumping techniques. It's the earliest and simplest technique in pole vaulting. Throughout the development of the crossbar high jump, variations such as rotational crossbar and straight-over crossbar techniques have emerged. The straight-over crossbar is also known as the scissors style.

The crossbar high jump consists of four interconnected phases: approach run, takeoff, clearing the bar, and landing. The approach run uses a side straight-line approach. For left-sided approach runners, the right leg is the takeoff leg and the left leg is the swing leg. The opposite is true for right-sided approach runners. The approach run accelerates gradually. During takeoff, the takeoff foot lands flat on the ground, and the swinging leg actively swings forward and upward. After clearing the bar, it turns downward and exerts pressure while the arms hang down. During the bar clearance, the body tilts sideways and twists toward the takeoff leg's direction, with the arms raised. After clearing the bar, the body faces the bar's side. The swing leg lands first, followed by the takeoff leg, with a slight cushioning effect.

The takeoff angle for the crossbar high jump ranges from 30° to 45°, with a straight takeoff path. The starting point can begin with a reverse approach from the takeoff point. The starting point for the crossbar high jump is 30 centimeters outside the bar. Initially, establish the starting point around 30 centimeters on either side of the bar's midpoint. Run 7 to 8 steps before leaping. If the starting point is too close, move it backward by the appropriate distance. If it's too far, move it forward accordingly. Through repeated practice, you can find your ideal takeoff point.

(II) Backward High Jump

There are various techniques in high jumping, and one commonly used technique is the backward high jump. The backward high jump can be divided into four phases: approach run, takeoff, clearing the bar, and landing.

Approach Run

The backward high jump's approach run consists of straight-line and curved approaches.

(1) Straight-Line Approach: This typically involves a 4- to 5-step acceleration run. The leg swing and backward kick of both legs are quite pronounced, keeping the body's center of gravity higher. The movement should be relaxed, natural, and elastic.

(2) Curved Approach: Usually consisting of 4 to 5 steps, the body slightly tilts toward the curve's center during the approach. The foot transition from heel to forefoot occurs upon landing, and the arm swing resembles the curve's running motion. During the last two steps, the stride slightly lengthens and shortens respectively, with the last step being smaller and faster, preparing for takeoff.

Takeoff

(1) The leg farthest from the bar is the takeoff leg. It moves laterally away from the body, landing on the takeoff point. The heel touches down first, transitioning quickly to the entire forefoot. The knee flexes to absorb shock, and the body leans toward the takeoff leg.

(2) The swinging leg actively swings the thigh forward and upward until it's horizontal, with the lower leg hanging naturally. The body becomes upright.

(3) The swinging leg flexes the knee inward, swings it upward and across the opposite shoulder, and rotates the hips internally. Simultaneously, the takeoff leg forcefully extends at the hip, knee, and ankle joints, completing the takeoff.

Clearing the Bar

(1) Maintain the extension of the takeoff leg and fully extend the torso. Rotate the upper body to face away from the bar, and the takeoff leg hangs naturally.

(2) As the head and shoulders clear the bar, quickly lower the shoulders, place both arms to the sides, lift the hips upward, and bend both knees. The legs remain in a natural hanging position.

Landing

(1) After the hips clear the bar, swing the upper leg upward, and kick the lower leg backward, allowing the entire body to clear the bar.

(2) The shoulders continue to descend, pulling the chest inward, and both legs naturally descend, cushioning the landing.

(III) Long Jump

The long jump consists of four phases: approach run, takeoff, flight, and landing.

Approach Run

(1) Begin the approach run from a stationary position or while walking. Lean the upper body forward, actively swing the thigh, and push off the ground forcefully with the rear foot. Swing the arms vigorously.

(2) Gradually raise the upper body during the approach run, accelerating the leg and arm swings, and increase the speed. Maintain a high center of gravity, steady body posture, and a rhythmic motion.

(3) Accelerate the pace over several steps, maintaining a high center of gravity and fast approach speed. Keep the head upright or slightly raised, preparing for takeoff.

(4) The distance of the approach run varies. For high-level athletes, the approach distance is generally 35 to 45 meters for men and 30 to 35 meters for women. University male athletes typically use 14 to 18 steps, while university female athletes use 12 to 16 steps.

Takeoff

The takeoff action starts after the final step's swinging leg push and continues until the takeoff leg leaves the ground.

(1) In the last step of the approach run, push off forcefully with the swinging leg to move the body toward the takeoff board. Swing the takeoff leg forward rapidly, actively push off the rear thigh, and step onto the takeoff board, transitioning from the heel to the entire forefoot.

(2) As the takeoff leg lands, the hip, knee, and ankle joints bend to cushion the landing. Simultaneously, shift the body's weight forward, and the takeoff leg rapidly extends at the hip, knee, and ankle joints. The swinging leg's thigh actively swings forward and upward until it's horizontal, with the lower leg hanging naturally.

(3) The arm on the same side as the takeoff leg flexes at the elbow and swings forward and upward, while the arm on the opposite side flexes at the elbow and swings sideways. Elevate the shoulder, lift the waist, and push the head upward.

Flight

(1) After the takeoff leg leaves the ground, keep the upper body upright, maintain the swinging leg's horizontal position from the takeoff, and allow the lower leg to hang naturally. The takeoff leg remains bent behind the body, creating a mid-air stride.

(2) Flight posture can be categorized as squatting or extending.

Squatting: As the apex of the jump approaches, the takeoff leg bends at the knee, raising the thigh and bringing it close to the body. Both legs flex at the knee, and the thigh moves closer to the chest. The upper body slightly leans forward. Both arms swing from front to down and then backward. Before landing, both lower legs extend forward in preparation.

Extending: After takeoff, the swinging leg naturally drops, with the lower leg curving backward and downward. Both arms swing downward, move to the body's side, and then swing upward and backward. The swinging leg aligns with the takeoff leg, the hips move forward, and the chest and waist lift, forming a body posture with an extended position. Before landing, both arms swing upward and forward, while both thighs lift, the waist tightens, and the upper body leans forward.

Landing

(1) Extend the lower legs forward, land on the heels first, and press the forefeet downward. Both legs quickly flex at the knee to cushion the impact.

(2) Bend both elbows to swing the arms forward, and lean the body forward or to the side.

(IV) Standing Long Jump

Standing Long Jump Technique

The standing long jump technique involves the preparatory swing, takeoff, flight, and landing.

(1) Preparatory Swing: Start with feet apart, shoulder-width, and swing the arms forward and backward. During the forward swing, the legs are extended, and during the backward swing, the knees are flexed to lower the center of gravity. The upper body slightly leans forward, and the arms swing back as far as possible. Key points: Coordinate upper and lower body movements, extend while swinging forward and flex while swinging back, lowering the center of gravity with a slight forward lean.

(2) Takeoff and Flight: Push off the ground forcefully with both feet, and swing both arms slightly bent from behind to forward and upward. Leap forward and upward, fully extending the body. Key points: Strong and quick takeoff push, coordinate leg and arm movement, emphasize the momentary push of the forefoot before leaving the ground.

(3) Landing and Cushioning: Lift the legs to the chest and extend the lower legs forward while swinging both arms forcefully backward. Bend the knees to cushion the landing. Key points: Time the extension of the lower legs correctly, bend the legs and swing the arms forward before extending the arms back. Move forward after landing, not backward.

Assisted Drills for Standing Long Jump

(1) Standing Broad Jump: Start with a knee bend and jump in place. Perform a straight-legged forward jump in the air, fully extending the hips, creating a back arch, and bending the knees for cushioning upon landing.

(2) One-Legged Jump Forward: Practice by using the left (right) leg for takeoff while jumping to the right (left). Keep the distance around 20 to 25 meters, completing 3 to 4 sets.

(3) Tuck Jump: Start from a standing position and jump, tucking the knees to the chest or clapping the hands in front of the legs. Ensure to cushion the landing by bending the knees.

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