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Physiological Responses to Exercise

Physiological Responses to Exercise(I) Exercise-induced Abdominal PainExercise-induced abdominal pain refers to abdominal discomfort directly caused by physical activity. Abdominal...

Physiological Responses to Exercise

(I) Exercise-induced Abdominal Pain

Exercise-induced abdominal pain refers to abdominal discomfort directly caused by physical activity. Abdominal pain is a common symptom during exercise, often observed in sports such as middle and long-distance running, racewalking, marathon, cycling, and basketball.

Causes of Exercise-induced Abdominal Pain: Participating in exercise shortly after meals can cause stomach discomfort due to food distension. Consuming excessive water before exercise or exposure to cold temperatures may lead to abdominal cramps. Inadequate warm-up could result in liver and spleen congestion, causing pulling pain due to their membranes being stretched. Improper breathing during exercise might cause liver and spleen membrane tension-related pain.

Symptoms of Exercise-induced Abdominal Pain: The location of exercise-induced abdominal pain varies. Pain occurring after eating and exercise is commonly felt in the upper or middle abdomen. Stomach spasms lead to pain in the upper abdomen, while intestinal spasms or intestinal tuberculosis may cause pain in the middle abdomen. Liver and spleen membrane tension-related pain often occurs on both sides of the upper abdomen.

Treatment of Exercise-induced Abdominal Pain: Techniques to address this pain include slowing down running pace, deepening breaths, massaging the painful area, or bending and running for a short distance. These methods can alleviate or eliminate pain. If pain persists, worsens, or intensifies, cease exercise immediately and seek medical assistance.

Prevention of Exercise-induced Abdominal Pain: Schedule exercise after allowing at least an hour after meals. Engage in proper warm-up activities before exercise, gradually increase intensity during exercise, and maintain a consistent breathing rhythm. If exercise-induced abdominal pain results from chronic conditions, consult a physician and exercise under their guidance.

(II) Exercise-induced Anemia

Exercise-induced anemia refers to the reduction of hemoglobin concentration caused by exercise. During middle and long-distance running, and marathon training, blood sugar is rapidly consumed, which may lead to exercise-induced anemia, occurring during or after exercise due to prolonged activity.

Causes of Exercise-induced Anemia: Prolonged intense exercise increases the demand for protein and iron. When these demands aren't met, exercise-induced anemia can occur. Hemolysis phospholipids released by the spleen during exercise increase red blood cell fragility. Combined with the increased blood flow during intense exercise, red blood cells are prone to rupture, resulting in exercise-induced anemia. Inadequate nutrient intake due to poor diet or chronic diarrhea can also contribute to exercise-induced anemia.

Symptoms of Exercise-induced Anemia: Symptoms of exercise-induced anemia include dizziness, nausea, breathlessness, fatigue, and pale complexion during mild cases, progressing to confusion, unclear speech, mental disorientation, convulsions, or even coma during severe cases.

Treatment of Exercise-induced Anemia: If symptoms of exercise-induced anemia occur, reduce exercise intensity or pause exercise. Consume protein and iron-rich foods, take iron sulfate tablets and vitamin C to treat iron-deficiency anemia effectively.

Prevention of Exercise-induced Anemia: Eat before exercise to avoid fasting, especially for those with weak constitutions or those who haven't exercised in a while. If signs of hunger or low blood sugar occur during exercise, reduce exercise intensity, replenish with sugary drinks or food, and seek medical attention if necessary.

(III) Exercise-induced Fainting

Exercise-induced fainting is a transient loss of consciousness caused by sudden cerebral ischemia during physical activity.

Causes of Exercise-induced Fainting: During intense or prolonged exercise, blood accumulates in the lower limbs, reducing the volume of blood returning to the heart, leading to cerebral ischemia and fainting. A similar phenomenon known as "orthostatic shock" can occur if an athlete abruptly stops moving after exercise.

Symptoms of Exercise-induced Fainting: Symptoms of exercise-induced fainting include general weakness, temporary vision blackout, pale complexion, cool extremities, and loss of consciousness. Physiological checks reveal a slow and weak pulse, shallow breathing, dilated pupils, and a drop in blood pressure.

Treatment of Exercise-induced Fainting: Lay the individual flat and raise their feet slightly higher than their head. Massage towards the heart, use cool water to wipe their body, and provide a saltwater solution or water to drink. After a few hours, the individual should recover. If severe, seek immediate medical attention and transfer to a hospital.

Prevention of Exercise-induced Fainting: Strengthen physical fitness through regular exercise. Avoid sudden standing after prolonged squatting and abrupt halting after vigorous running. Individuals with illnesses or feeling hungry should not engage in strenuous exercise.

(IV) Exercise-induced Hypoglycemia

Exercise-induced hypoglycemia refers to a series of clinical symptoms that occur when blood sugar concentration falls below normal levels. During long-distance running, marathons, and intense training, blood sugar can decrease significantly due to prolonged activity, leading to exercise-induced hypoglycemia.

Causes of Exercise-induced Hypoglycemia: Prolonged, intense exercise depletes blood glucose. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism in the cerebral cortex, combined with increased insulin secretion, can lead to exercise-induced hypoglycemia. Inadequate nutrient intake, emotional stress, or illness can also contribute.

Symptoms of Exercise-induced Hypoglycemia: Mild symptoms include weakness, hunger, extreme fatigue, dizziness, pale complexion, cold sweat, and restlessness. Severe symptoms can include confusion, slurred speech, mental confusion, convulsions, and even loss of consciousness. Blood glucose levels can drop below 0.5g/L.

Treatment of Exercise-induced Hypoglycemia: If exercise-induced hypoglycemia occurs, consume sugary water or food. For severe cases, administer glucose solution intravenously to increase blood sugar levels.

Prevention of Exercise-induced Hypoglycemia: Consume a meal before exercising to avoid fasting. Those who are physically weak or untrained should avoid prolonged, high-intensity exercise. When experiencing significant hunger or hypoglycemic symptoms, reduce exercise intensity, replenish with sugary water or food, and seek medical attention if necessary.

(V) Exercise-induced Heatstroke

Exercise-induced heatstroke is a condition where the heat generated by muscle activity exceeds the body's ability to dissipate it, resulting in an overheated state. It's commonly observed in marathon runners, triathletes, and individuals participating in mass physical activities.

Causes of Exercise-induced Heatstroke: Performing physical activities in high-temperature, poorly-ventilated environments, especially under direct sunlight, can lead to heatstroke due to impaired temperature regulation.

Symptoms of Exercise-induced Heatstroke: Mild symptoms include facial flushing, dizziness, headache, chest tightness, hot skin, and elevated body temperature. Severe symptoms include nausea, vomiting, rapid and weak pulse, mental confusion, collapse, seizures, lowered blood pressure, and even coma.

Treatment of Exercise-induced Heatstroke: Immediately move the affected individual to a ventilated and shaded area, loosen clothing, cool the forehead, wipe with lukewarm water, and provide salt-containing cold drinks or water. After a few hours, the individual should recover. For severe cases, seek prompt medical treatment.

Prevention of Exercise-induced Heatstroke: During hot weather, reduce exercise intensity and duration, avoid exercising under the scorching sun for prolonged periods, wear light-colored clothing and sun hats when outdoors, ensure proper ventilation during indoor exercise, and drink low-sugar, salt-containing beverages.

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