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Training Methods for Running Exercise

Training Methods for Running Exercise(I) SprintingSprinting can be divided into four stages: starting, accelerating after the start, mid-run, and finishing sprint.StartingThe techn...

Training Methods for Running Exercise

(I) Sprinting

Sprinting can be divided into four stages: starting, accelerating after the start, mid-run, and finishing sprint.

Starting

The technique of starting aims to generate forward thrust, rapidly transitioning the body from a static state to create favorable conditions for accelerating after the start.

There are two methods for setting up starting blocks: "ordinary" and "elongated." Typically, the "ordinary" method is used, where the front block is placed at about one and a half foot lengths (approximately 40 to 45 centimeters) behind the starting line, and the rear block is set at one and a half foot lengths behind the front block. The supporting surface of the front and rear blocks forms angles of 40° to 45° and 70° to 80° respectively with the ground. The centerline of the two starting blocks is spaced around 15 centimeters apart.

The technique of starting involves three phases: "on your marks," "get set," and the firing of the gun (or "go").

Upon hearing the "on your marks" command, take 2 to 3 deep breaths and walk lightly to the front of the starting blocks. Place your hands on the ground, step onto the pedal of the front and then rear starting blocks one by one, kneel down on the rear knee, place your hands along the line closely behind the starting line, extend your arms straight, keeping your shoulders parallel to the starting line, with a slight shoulder-width gap between your hands, fingers together and thumbs forming a figure-eight support. Relax your neck naturally, gaze 40 to 50 centimeters ahead and slightly downwards, and listen attentively for the "get set" command.

Upon hearing the "get set" command, take a breath in, lift your hips steadily to a height equal to or slightly above your shoulders, shifting your center of gravity accordingly. Your shoulders should be slightly ahead of the starting line. During this, your weight mainly rests on your arms and front leg. The "get set" position should be stable, with both feet close to the pedal of the starting block, maintaining high focus.

As the gun fires, swiftly push off the ground with both hands, vigorously swinging your arms back and forth by bending your elbows. Simultaneously, quickly push off the starting blocks with your legs, propelling your body forward and upward. The front leg should powerfully extend at the hip, knee, and ankle joints.

Accelerating After the Start

Accelerating after the start is the segment between pushing off with the rear leg from the starting blocks and reaching the mid-run stage. Its objective is to efficiently utilize the forward momentum and attain high speed over a short distance. As the rear leg leaves the starting blocks and the forward swing concludes, actively push downward with the first step upon landing, attempting to bring the landing point as close to the projection of your body's center of gravity as possible. Swiftly transition into the rear push after landing, and immediately bend the knee of the front leg into a forward swing. In the initial steps after the start, both feet move along two relatively narrow lines. As the pace accelerates, the points of foot landing gradually converge to the sides of an assumed straight line. The typical distance for acceleration is around 25 to 30 meters.

Mid-Run

The mid-run is the longest and fastest section in a sprint, maintaining and further unleashing high-speed running. Swing the knee joint of the swinging leg forward and upward rapidly, supporting leg extending forcefully at the hip, knee, and ankle joints, pushing off the ground. The lower leg quickly moves toward the thigh due to the inertia from pushing off the ground and the swing of the thigh, creating a folding and forward-swinging motion of the lower leg. Simultaneously, the swinging leg actively presses downward using the hip joint as an axis, the knee joint relaxed, and the lower leg naturally extends forward and downward from the inertia of the downward press, preparing to land.

When transitioning from a straight path to a curved path, consciously tilt the body inward, increasing the force and amplitude of the push-off and swing of the right leg. Correspondingly, enhance the force and amplitude of the right arm's swing. This aids in swiftly transitioning from a straight path to a curved one. During curved path running, incline the body toward the center, using the inside of the forefoot of the right leg for push-off and the outside of the forefoot of the left leg. The directions of push-off and swing during curved path running should align with the body's inclination toward the center.

Finishing Sprint

The finishing sprint is the final section of the entire run. The goal is to maintain the high speed achieved during the mid-run through the finish line. Around 15 to 20 meters from the finish line, strive to maintain a forward lean in the upper body, increase the speed and force of arm swinging. As you approach one step from the finish line, quickly lean forward using your chest or shoulder to break the finish line, and then gradually reduce your running speed.

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